the sixth extinction chapter 6 pdf

provides a look at the history of the planet, followed by a distressing prediction of the future. Around forty thousand years ago, humans showed up in Europe. We find these too vague to be satisfying. Marine creatures called ammonites lived for hundreds of millions of years before they suddenly disappeared. In 1984, conservationists started a captive breeding program to try and save the species. I learned all the main points in just 20 minutes. CHAPTER 3 This chapter discusses how settlers in Iceland exploited an ancient penguin-like bird, the great auk.
So, the species eventually dies out. As a result, the pH of the oceans’ surface water has decreased, making them 30% more acidic than they were in 1800. Ammonites lived for hundreds of millions of years before they disappeared. Elizabeth Kolbert is a book author and a New Yorker staff writer. Gradual and Extreme Changes A clam that cannot form a thick, durable shell will not be able to survive for very long—therefore, it’s possible that clams will go extinct. The book revisits five previous mass extinction events spanning five hundred million years and compares them to the rapid, widespread extinctions underway today of a range of species including frogs, corals, birds, and rhinos. Filed under: Politics & Society, Popular Science. Smaller populations are more prone to local extinction because they have a harder time recovering from chance disasters. Or we could take up residence on other planets. When the first settlers arrived in Iceland from Scandinavia, they regularly killed auks for food. By 1800, he identified 23 species he believed to be extinct, including a pygmy hippo, an elk with massive antlers, a giant bear, and a giant amphibian. Author Elizabeth Kolbert reports that this incident was the fifth time in 500 million years that natural events nearly killed all life, The planet is now in the phase of “The Sixth Extinction,” but according to Kolbert, this time it will not be the nature.

For example, humans have killed so many rhinos and destroyed so much of their habitat that all five species of rhinos are at risk. They include starfish, sea urchins, mollusks (clams and oysters), barnacles, and many coral species (the ones that build reefs).

66 million years ago, an asteroid hit Earth and wiped out dinosaurs, mammals, marine life, various birds, and plants. The average genus (a group of closely related species) is moving eight feet higher per year. This probably is what happens most of the time. THE SIXTH EXTINCTION • 5 the hills around El Valle. The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History. Species Dispersion: people have dispersed different species into geographical locations which they could not reach otherwise. The frogs are toxic— it’s been calculated that the poison contained in the skin of just one animal could kill Today they’ve spread south to Alabama and west to Montana.

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